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  • Shear and Traumatic Axonal Injury


    Demonstrates how the brain impacts on the inside of the skull during an impact on the right side of the head. Arrows indicate the forces that travel through the brain to result in shear injury or traumatic axonal injury.

  • Shear and Traumatic Axonal Injury (TAI) from Crash


    Axial view of brain impacting inside of the skull as the head impacts an airbag. Arrows indicate the forces involved in the collision that travel throughout the brain and result in shear and traumatic axonal injury (TAI) or diffuse axonal injury (DAI).

  • Vestibular Nerve Injury – Resulting from Sudden Forward Acceleration


    Demonstrates the mechanism of injury — as the brain stem and skull move in different directions during a violent impact|stretch injuries to the vestibular nerve can occur. This type of injury is especially significant when supporting arguments of brain injuries occurring as a result of traumatic forces to the head (without an impact) because if forces were significant enough to damage the vestibular nerve|the forces were also likely sufficient to cause shear or traumatic axonal injury.