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  • Intervertebral Disc Disruption


    Series of illustrations demonstrating how trauma to a disc can disrupt the flow of nutrients and oxygen from the vertebral body into the disc and cause a gradual breakdown of the disc.

  • Spondylolysis vs. Spondylolisthesis


    Compares the differences between spondylolysis (a harmless and painless congenital abnormality consisting of a slightly flexible defect in the posterior elements of a vertebra) to spondylolisthesis (Traumatic separation at the area of the defect resulting in malignment of the components of the spine.